Selecting a PROM
There are hundreds of PROMs available and the development of new PROMs is increasing. It is important to consider which PROM is right for your needs. Information on selecting PROMs outlines key considerations to support this decision making.
Generic PROMs list
The list of generic PROMs includes measures that are suitable for use across healthcare settings and conditions that were referred to in literature published from 1989 to 2019.
Conditions-specific PROMs list
The list of condition-specific PROMs includes measures for a selection of high-burden conditions. These conditions were referred to in literature published between 1989 to 2019. The Commission will add to this list over time. The list currently includes PROMs for:
- High burden cancers - lung cancer, bowel cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain and central nervous system cancer
- Cardiovascular diseases - coronary heart disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation and flutter, non-rheumatic valvular disease, cardiomyopathy and hypertension
- Mental health disorders - anxiety, depression, psychological distress and alcohol use disorders
- Musculoskeletal conditions - back pain and problems, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
- Injuries and trauma - burns, brain injury and orthopaedic trauma
- Respiratory diseases - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma
- Neurological conditions - dementia, epilepsy, migraine, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer's disease
- Gastrointestinal diseases - chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease
- Endocrine disorders - diabetes
- Oral disorders - dental caries and severe tooth loss
- Hearing and vision disorders - hearing loss and vision loss
- Skin disorders - dermatitis, pressure injuries and eczema
- Infectious diseases - HIV/ AIDs and influenza
- Kidney and urinary diseases - chronic kidney disease
- Blood and metabolic disorders - iron-deficiency anaemia
- Reproductive and maternal conditions - genital prolapse and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Development of the lists
Inclusion and exclusion
PROMs were included in the list if they met the following criteria:
- It is a standardised instrument/survey/method for measuring patient-reported health outcome
- It has been validated (i.e., there is published information on validation, see below)
- Validation analyses were conducted on an English language version of the instrument, either in the original validation paper or subsequently, and
- It assesses generic health status OR is a disease-specific PROM from one of the identified conditions.
Experience and satisfaction surveys, while related, were excluded if they were not explicitly used to measure health outcomes (e.g., symptoms, quality of life, or functional status).
The list of identified conditions was developed based on the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s list of chronic diseases and burden of disease data. Issues or conditions that potentially had a low likelihood of having a PROM because they were too broad, contained residual or non-specific terminology (e.g. other gastrointestinal infections) or were difficult to capture information from the patient (e.g. infant conditions), were subject to a preliminary scope to identify possibility of PROMs. No information on PROMs for these issues/conditions were found; accordingly, they were removed from the list.
A tool was deemed validated (and therefore eligible for inclusion) if there was published statistical analyses adequately establishing the reliability and validity of the scale/s. Analyses of reliability usually includes test-retest reliability and internal consistency (usually measured through Cronbach’s alpha). Analyses of validity may include: construct validity, criterion-related validity, and analyses of known-group differences. Establishment of content or face validity, which typically involves preliminary surveys about patients’ priorities or qualitative interviews and are used in the early stages to refine questions/items, were not considered sufficient for a PROM to be deemed validated.
For further information on the development of the lists or to request an excel file of the lists, please email email@example.com.