Why is this important?
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medicines have become increasingly prescribed for managing gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants. They are also prescribed for general symptoms such as irritability and crying (or colic) on the basis that reflux might be causing these symptoms. This is despite a lack of evidence of effectiveness, as well as uncertainty about the long-term effects of these medicines in the very young. In particular, there is concern about the potential for increased susceptibility to infections and food allergies that may result from the alteration of normal gut bacteria